Assessment. There are many purposes of evaluation and assessment in a music theory curriculum, including “measuring, learning, and motivating” (M. Rogers, 2004, p. 166); however, Kohn argues that “grades cannot be justified on the ground that they motivate students, because they actually undermine the sort of motivation that leads to excellence” (p. 203). White discusses the current issue of grade inflation stemming from student-teacher evaluations and a desire to “impart false feelings of ‘self- esteem’” (p. 166) that also results in “low learning levels and academic achievement that appears to be much higher than it really is” (p. 166). Many new approaches to assessment in music theory have surfaced, including self-assessment (Alegant & Sawhill, 2013) and criterion-referenced assessment (Moseley, 2014) in individual classrooms and departments, and “a modification of the no-grades system of the seventies used at some private colleges” (White, 2002, pp. 165–166) in larger, institutional applications. With copious amounts of research in assessment, music theory teachers must both determine the purpose and intent of individual tests and the overall philosophy of a course's assessment policies. However, even with this vast amount of research, there is still a “problem of validity in testing and test design” (White, 2002, p. 173) and a lack of research in valid and reliable assessment measurements in the field of music theory.